Mammals

Documentation Standards for Automatic Data Processing in Mammalogy

VERSION 2.0
1996
ISBN 0-89338-051-2
 

American Society of Mammalogists
Committee on Information Retrieval
To obtain a copy of this publication, please contact Suzanne McLaren.

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IV. GEOGRAPHIC DATA  

Documentation standards in this section apply to geographic descriptions of the location where specimens were obtained. The descriptions are based on a political hierarchical arrangement.

NOTE:
1. Equivalent hierarchical categories have been made available for material acquired from terrestrial and marine localities. Although categories for both types of localities may be used for “beached” marine mammals, it is intended that marine locality designations apply primarily to specimens acquired from open marine waters.

2. Two procedures for documenting detailed locality information have been used among institutions. One procedure involves no breakdown of total locality information (e.g., 1.72 MI N, 5.8 MI W MEMPHIS), believing such data are used primarily for printing purposes and not retrieval. The other approach divides the components of the locality information into separate categories for the purpose of retrieval (e.g., MEMPHIS and 1.72 MI N, 5.8 MI W). The categories that are affected by these two procedures are SPECIFIC LOCALITY, REFERENCE POINT, AND REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER. SPECIFIC LOCALITY is used in the first procedure mentioned above. The other two categories (REFERENCE POINT AND REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER) are subsets of the first category and apply to the second procedure mentioned above.

3. Additionally, latitude, longitude, township and range, and altitude may be incorporated with specific locality. Careful thought should be given to data groupings because of its potential impact on future use of Geographic Information Systems software.

A. CONTINENT—Optional.

DESCRIPTION: The category applies to the continent of the collecting locality. For purposes of data entry, a continent is defined as one of seven great land masses on the globe.

FORMAT: Data in this category may be abbreviated by using the first two letters in the Anglicized name of each continent or another logical two-letter designation.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it should not be omitted.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLES:  

Code  Continent Name 
AF AFRICA
AN ANTARCTICA
AS ASIA
AU AUSTRALIA
EU EUROPE
NA NORTH AMERICA
SA SOUTH AMERICA
UN LOCALITY UNKNOWN

 

COMMENTS: This category will be of most use to large collections with worldwide holdings. In such circumstances, this field is invaluable for selective retrieval of taxa with multi-continental distribution (e.g., African sciurids or Australian emballonurids). It is also useful in report writing that requires information on total holdings.

 

 


 

B. COUNTRY OR CONTINENT—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: For collections that opt not to have a separate field for continent, this category applies to the country or continent of the collecting locality. For purposes of data retrieval a continent is defined as one of seven great land masses on the globe, and a country is defined as the highest political unit or its territory.

FORMAT: Data in this category are to be written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before data entry. For references of standard names of continents see CONTINENT. Continent names should not be used in this field if the country name is known. In most instances, the country name will be used.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: For specimens that have a collecting locality recorded as a boundary line, the name of the country entered in this category should be the country referred to by the more specific locality descriptions. If only country boundary line is specified as the locality, the following format is to be used: COUNTRY-COUNTRY BOUNDARY (in alphabetic order). If no appropriate data are available, enter “LOCALITY UNKNOWN.”

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and should not be omitted.

VALID EXAMPLES:
UNITED STATES
PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA
MEXICO-UNITED STATES BOUNDARY
LOCALITY UNKNOWN

COMMENTS: Utilization of this category is primarily for ease of retrieval and to provide general geographic arrangement for specimens. Originally, it was felt that the name of the country should be recorded as it appears on the original data source. If this method is used, a dictionary of equivalent names for the same political regions should be maintained (e.g., Tanzania = German East Africa; Tanganiya Territory; Tanganyika). In the preceding example, each country name would have to be queried in a search for specimens from that region. It is much more advantageous to standardize country names to the most currently used political name. All names are retrieved together and sorted expeditiously. This avoids international misunderstandings when interacting with colleagues whose country’s name change is politically sensitive. The use of a directory/look-up table can also delineate the handling of territories versus country names and shortened versions of official country names.

 

 


 

C. STATE OR PROVINCE—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the state, province, or other first-level political subdivision of the collecting locality. For purposes of data entry, this category is defined as the primary administrative division of a country.

FORMAT: Data in this category are to be written out completely, and Anglicized or transliterated before entry.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and is omitted only if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category is used after appropriate data have been entered for CONTINENT and/or COUNTRY.

VALID EXAMPLES:
VIRGINIA
QUINTANA ROO
QUEBEC

COMMENTS: The use of modifiers such as Province, Department, or Territory should follow logically in country usage. Utilization of modifier abbreviations must be consistent.

See APPENDIX B. 

 

 


 

D. COUNTY, PARISH, DISTRICT, DEPT., or MAJOR ISLAND GROUP—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: For purposes of data entry this category is defined as the second administrative division of a country such as the county, parish, district, or department. A major island group is defined as the largest local geographic division of island groups.

FORMAT: Data in this category are to be written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before entry. To avoid confusion among different types of secondary administrative divisions, it is necessary to follow the name of the division with the geographic designation. To save space on printed output, these geographic designations are abbreviated as follows: CO = county, PAR = parish, DIST = district, DEPT = department, ID = island, IDS = islands.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and is omitted only if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category is used after appropriate data have been entered in the categories for CONTINENT or COUNTRY and STATE or PROVINCE.

VALID EXAMPLES:
UMTALI DIST
ALLEGHENY CO
ORLEANS PAR
PRIBILOF IDS

COMMENTS: Traditionally, when a specimen is collected in one county but the reference point is located in an adjacent county, the county where collected has been preceded by the word “in” to emphasize that distinction. This standard is not practical for purposes of computerized sorting because it alters alphabetic arrangements. The word “in” may be dropped from entry in the category. Reference to this peculiarity may be noted within the COMMENTS/REMARKS category.

 

 


 

CATEGORY: E. SPECIFIC LOCALITY—Preferred.

(interchangeable with REFERENCE POINT AND REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER).

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the entire record of the most specific designation of the collecting locality, below the category for STATE or PROVINCE and/or COUNTY, PARISH, DISTRICT, DEPARTMENT, or MAJOR ISLAND GROUP, that was documented in the original records. This category replaces categories used for recording various parts of the specific locality, such as REFERENCE POINT, and REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER, and may include ALTITUDE, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, and TOWNSHIP AND RANGE (see COMMENTS).

FORMAT: The format and types of information used are determined by the institution to fulfill its individual needs. Data in this category are written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before entry. Abbreviations may be used if they occur in the STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS LIST (APPENDIX B) or the meanings of abbreviations used in the original data source are uncertain. If the specific locality cannot be determined, enter “SPECIFIC LOCALITY UNKNOWN.” Units of measurements are the same as those used in the original documentation.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it should not be omitted.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: If possible, this category is utilized after more general geographic designations have been entered in appropriate categories.

VALID EXAMPLES:
2.0 MI N, 1.7 MI W SANTA FE
6.8 MI N, 3 MI W LAS CRUCES, 2005 FT, T22S, R1E, SEC 9
FAIRMOUNT TWP, 2.1 MI N HARVEYVILLE
ALLEGHENY NATIONAL FOREST, SHEFFIELD
SPECIFIC LOCALITY UNKNOWN
* SANTA FE, 2.0 MI N, 1.7 MI W

COMMENTS: Utilization of this field offers several advantages: 1) the data do not require alteration to fit other categories; 2) output operations are considerably less complicated; 3) it generally follows standard documentation procedures and is easily understood by new users; 4) there is no confusion about what should be entered as a modifier versus the reference point. The biggest disadvantage is that as originally described, it does not allow easy sorting by reference point. * To facilitate sorting of specimens from localities around a single reference point while using this category, the data sequence may be altered as in the last VALID EXAMPLE. Road junctions have proven to be poor locality designators as are property names (e.g., Clayton Ranch) and local identifiers (e.g., Summit Trail, North Meadow, or Smith’s Pond). Where field size is limited and more specific and lasting information is also available, these inexact or ephemeral data may have to be omitted. Sorting difficulties arise when the same locality is collected on different occasions and recorded differently each time. For example, 0.5 mi N Ogden and 1/2 mi N Ogden will sort as different localities and may be widely separated on a print-out.

 

 


 

F. REFERENCE POINT—Preferred

(when combined with REF. POINT MODIFIER, interchangeable with SPEC. LOCALITY).

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the reference point used in the original records to define the precise collecting locality of the specimen.

FORMAT: Data in this category are written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before entry. Abbreviations may be used if they occur on the STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS LIST (APPENDIX B) or the meanings of abbreviations used in the original data source are uncertain. If the specific locality cannot be determined, enter “SPECIFIC LOCALITY UNKNOWN.”

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it should not be omitted.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: If possible, this category is utilized after more general geographic designations have been entered in appropriate categories.

VALID EXAMPLES:
SANTA FE
LAS CRUCES
HARVEYVILLE
JCT HWY 3 and HWY 24
POINT OF PINES
SPECIFIC LOCALITY UNKNOWN

COMMENTS: This category is designed primarily to permit sorting by reference point. Because sorting by category gives specific geographic listings, it is particularly useful in those areas that do not have a breakdown of political boundaries to the level of county, parish, district, department, or major island group. If this category is to be functional, an awareness of data hierarchy, standardization of data among specimens, and data utilization is required.

 

 


 

G. REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER—Preferred

(when combined with REFERENCE POINT, interchangeable with SPECIFIC LOCALITY).

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to supplemental information, ideally a distance and direction, about the REFERENCE POINT of a collecting locality. Entries either may specify the relationship of the collecting locality to the REFERENCE POINT or present a more detailed designation than that given in the category for REFERENCE POINT.

FORMAT: The format is designed by the institution to fulfill specific needs. Abbreviations may be used if they occur on the STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS LIST (APPENDIX B) or the meanings of abbreviations used in the original data source are uncertain. Units of measurement used are the same as those in the original documentation.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it should not be omitted.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category is utilized only after the category for REFERENCE POINT has been used.

VALID EXAMPLES:
2.0 MI N, 1.7 MI W
6.8 MI N, 3.9 MI W
FAIRMONT TWP, 2.1 MI N
6 KM W
ALLEGHENY NATL FOREST

COMMENTS: The use of commas (,) is encouraged to help clarify and differentiate locality information (e.g., ABINGTON BAEDERWOOD PARK is not the same as ABINGTON, BAEDERWOOD PARK). REFERENCE POINT and REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER are ideally suited for distances and directions from a specific reference point. They become difficult to use and standardize with deviations from this pattern. Also, sorting difficulties arise when the same locality is collected on different occasions and recorded differently each time. For example, 0.5 mi N Ogden and 1/2 mi N Ogden will sort as different localities and may be widely separated on a print-out.

 

 


 

H. TOWNSHIP AND RANGE—Optional.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the township and range of the collecting locality.

FORMAT: The format and types of information used are determined by the institution to fulfill individual needs. The standard abbreviations for township and range, as used in this category, are “T” and “R” respectively. Township designations should always precede range designations.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution it may be omitted if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLE:
T22S, R1E, SEC 9

COMMENTS: Township and range as used here are designations unique to a few US states. As such, collections with few specimens from the western United States will probably have little reason to designate this as a separate category.

 

 


 

I. ELEVATION—Preferred.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the elevation of the collecting locality as indicated on the original data source.

FORMAT: Data for this category are recorded with a numerical designation, followed by a space and either “M” (meters) or “F” (feet) to indicate units. The units of measurement used are the same as those in the original documentation.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution it may be omitted if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category should be used after appropriate data are entered in the categories for SPECIFIC LOCALITY or REFERENCE POINT and REFERENCE POINT MODIFIER.

VALID EXAMPLES:
3935 F
450 M

COMMENTS: See APPENDIX C for CHIN variations.

 

 


 

J. OCEAN—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the most general designation of marine collecting localities. For purposes of data entry, ocean is defined as one of six great divisions of the whole body of salt water on the globe.

FORMAT: Data used in this category are to be written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before data entry. For reference of standard names for oceans see VALID EXAMPLES. If no information is available for specimens collected at marine localities, enter “LOCALITY UNKNOWN” in this category.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and is omitted only if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLES:
NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN
INDIAN OCEAN
ARCTIC OCEAN
LOCALITY UNKNOWN

COMMENTS: This category is used primarily for recording marine localities and providing the ability to list marine mammals according to such localities. In the case of beached specimens, this category may be used in conjunction with the appropriate categories for terrestrial localities. Some collections with few marine mammals choose not to set aside a separate field but to equate OCEAN with the COUNTRY field.

 

 


 

K. SEA—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to marine mammal collecting localities. For purposes of data entry, sea is defined as the first division of an ocean.

FORMAT: Data in this category are to be written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before data entry. For reference of standard names for seas check VALID EXAMPLES.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and is omitted only if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category is used after appropriate data have been entered in the category for OCEAN.

VALID EXAMPLES: The standard names for seas (originally provided by the NMNH) are

 

ADEN, GULF OF DAVIS STRAIT MEDITERRANEAN SEA
ADRIATIC SEA DENMARK STRAIT MEXICO, GULF OF
AEGEAN SEA DRAKE PASSAGE MULUCCA SEA
ALASKA CANADA COASTAL EAST CHINA SEA MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL
ALASKA, GULF OF EAST SIBERIAN SEA NORTH SEA
ADMUNSEN SEA ENGLISH CHANNEL NORWEGIAN SEA
AMURSKIY LIMAN FINLAND, GULF OF NORTHWEST PASSAGES
ANDAMAN SEA FLORES SEA OKHOTSK, SEA OF
ARABIAN SEA FORMOSA STRAIT OMAN, GULF OF
ARAFURA SEA FUNDY, BAY OF PANAMA, GULF OF
AZOV, SEA OF GOLFO SAN JORGE PERSIAN GULF
BAFFIN SEA GOLFO SAN MATIAS PHILIPPINE SEA
BALEARIC (IBERIAN) SEA GREAT AUSTRALIAN BIGHT RED SEA
BALI SEA GREENLAND SEA RIO DE LA PLATA
BALTIC SEA GUINEA, GULF OF RIGA, GULF OF
BANDA SEA HALMAHERA SEA ROSS SEA
BARENTS SEA HUDSON BAY ST LAWRENCE, GULF OF
BASS SEA HUDSON STRAIT SAVU SEA
BEAUFORT SEA IONIAN SEA SAKHALINSKIY ZALIV
BELLINGHAUSEN SEA IRISH SEA SCOTIA SEA
BENGAL, BAY OF JAMES BAY SIAM, GULF OF
BERING SEA JAVA SEA SKACERRAK
BERING STRAIT JAPAN, SEA OF SOLOMON SEA
BISCAY, BAY OF JOSEPH BONAPARTE GULF SOUTH CHINA SEA
BISMARCK SEA KANE BASIN SUEZ, GULF OF
BLACK SEA KARA SEA SULU SEA
BRISTOL BAY KATTEGAT TARTARY, GULF OF
BRISTOL CHANNEL KOREA BAY TASMAN SEA
BOTHNIA, GULF OF KOREA STRAIT TELUK BONE
CALIFORNIA, GULF OF LACCADIVE TELUK TOMINI
CARPENTARIA, GULF OF LAPTEV SEA TIMOR SEA
CARIBBEAN SEA LIONS, GULF OF TONKIN, GULF OF
CELEBES SEA LIGURIAN SEA TORRES STRAIT
CERAM SEA LINCOLN SEA TYRRHENIAN SEA
CHIHLI, GULF OF MAKASSAR STRAIT WEDDELL SEA
CHUKCHI SEA MALACCA STRAIT WHITE SEA
COOK STRAIT MANNAR, GULF OF YELLOW SEA
CORAL SEA MARMARA SEA ZALIV SHELEKHOVA

 

COMMENTS: See COMMENTS under OCEAN. Some collections may choose to equate SEA with the STATE field.

 

 


 

L. BAY, INLET, STRAIT, ESTUARY, GULF OR CHANNEL—Essential.

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to marine mammal collecting localities. For purposes of data entry, a bay, inlet, strait, estuary, gulf, or channel are defined as a subdivision of a sea or a subdivision of an ocean if the name of the body of water does not occur in the list of standard names of seas(see VALID EXAMPLES in category for SEA).

FORMAT: Data in this category are to be written out completely and Anglicized or transliterated before data entry. For locality designations that include any combination of bay, inlet, strait, estuary, gulf, or channel enter only the most specific geographic designation. To illustrate this rule, consider the case of a specimen that has a collecting locality description containing, in part, “TAMPA BAY, GULF OF MEXICO,” TAMPA BAY would be entered in this category and MEXICO, GULF OF would be recorded under SEA.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category was declared “mandatory” in 1975 and is omitted only if no appropriate data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLES:
TAMPA BAY
QUEEN CHARLOTTE CHANNEL
COOS BAY ESTUARY

COMMENTS: See COMMENTS category for OCEAN. More specific collecting locality descriptions for marine mammals may be documented with the category for LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. Some collections with few marine mammals choose not to set aside a separate field but to equate this field with the COUNTY field.

 

 


 

M. LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE

Preferred (for old specimens); Essential (for new specimens).

DESCRIPTION: This category applies to the latitude and longitude of the actual collecting locality and not the reference point.

FORMAT: The format used is to be determined by the institution. Latitude designations should precede longitude designations.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it may be omitted if no applicable data are available.* 

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLES:
28 52N, 15 10W
2852N, 1510W
2852-S, 2158-E
0123010N, 0111257E
28N, 15W
58.75N, 135.06E

COMMENTS: *There is great interest in making this category a required field because of the potential for use of Geographic Information Systems. Some multidisciplinary planning groups have suggested retroactive determination of these data for all specimen records with a separate field used to rank reliability of the coordinate determinations (see O. COORDINATE PRECISION INDEX category). In order to institute the use of latitude and longitude on a regular basis, collectors and preparators must be apprised of the need for including this information when other locality data are determined in the field.

See APPENDIX C for CHIN variations.

 

 


 

N. Universal Transverse Mercator values or UTM—Optional.

DESCRIPTION: A coordinate system for indicating locations on the Earth’s surface, based upon ground distances. Locations are designated in terms of distances in meters east (or west) of the center of a UTM zone and north (or south) of the equator (McLaren and Braun, 1993).

FORMAT: UTM Easting (six digits), UTM Northing (seven digits), UTM Zone (two digits), and a horizontal datum (at least five alphanumeric characters) should be included as part of the entry for this category. Coordinates are expressed in meters.

OMIT CONDITIONS: If this category is adopted by the institution, it may be omitted if no applicable data are available.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: None.

VALID EXAMPLES:
270900 4611600 19 NAD27

COMMENTS: UTMs are easier to work with than latitude and longitude because it is a base 10 number and is easier to obtain from a map. It would be helpful to use this field in conjunction with the O. COORDINATE PRECISION INDEX category. It may be desirable to allow more than five alphanumeric characters for the horizontal datum segment of this category. Designations outside of North America are not standardized at this time.

See APPENDIX C for CHIN variations.

 

 


 

O. Coordinate Precision Index (CPI)—Optional.

DESCRIPTION: This category is used to indicate the reliability of the coordinates that have been applied to a given collecting locality. The index is quasi-logarithmic and values will range from 1–9 (Hegstad, 1990).

1.1—Designates coordinate data as entered by the collector and accurate to within +10 meters; e.g., data obtained using GPS technology.

1.2—Designates coordinate data as entered by the collector and accurate to within +100 meters; e.g., data extrapolated using 1:24,000 topographic map.

1.3—Designates coordinate data as entered by the collector and accurate to within +1 kilometer; e.g., data extrapolated using >/= 1:100,000 scale map.

2—Designates coordinate data which has been looked up in tables listing coordinates for various place names on the globe. Precision: collection site within 3 miles of coordinates given.

3—Designates coordinate data which have been computerized from relative distance data. It would also include center coordinates for small islands and other small geographic features.

4—Designates center coordinates for larger geographic features given in the collector’s data where no precise information is given. This would also cover most US counties and larger islands. Precision: collection site within 30 miles of coordinates given.

5—Designates center coordinates for even larger geographic features such as larger US counties, small states and countries, and very large islands. Precision: collection site within 100 miles of coordinates given.

6—Designates larger US counties, small states and countries, and very large islands. Precision: collection site within 300 miles of coordinates given.

7—Designates center coordinates for very large geographic features such as “Africa” or “Australia.” Precision: collection site >300 miles from coordinates given. Although of marginal value, this value indicates that some locality information is known.

8.X—Designates an interim value, based on one of the above values of precision but where the data have the potential for more precise location. This marks them for future reference when the coordinates for this place name may be found. The “X” value represents the current precision level used.

9—Designates that no locality data are available. This value flags any data in the coordinate fields as garbage. This avoids ambiguity when a particular computer system interprets a “blank field” as 00.00, which is a legitimate latitude/longitude.

FORMAT: Data in this category will consist of a single value from 1–9. The field will require three characters to accommodate the extensions described for #1 and #8.

ACCEPTED VARIATIONS: None.

OMIT CONDITIONS: This category should not be omitted if fields for coordinates exist and GIS utilization is anticipated.

CONTINGENCY REQUIREMENTS: This category is used after evaluation of the coordinate fields.

VALID EXAMPLES:
1
8.6

COMMENTS: See APPENDIX C for CHIN variations.

 

 

I. INSTITUTIONAL DATA 

II. TAXONOMIC DATA 

III. SPECIMEN DATA 

IV. GEOGRAPHIC DATA 

V. OTHER DATA 

VI. APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A. LISTING OF CATEGORIES BY USAGE STATUS
APPENDIX B. LISTING OF STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS
APPENDIX C. NOTATIONS ON THE CHIN SYSTEM
APPENDIX D. SAMPLE DATA RELEASE AGREEMENT

VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  

VIII. LITERATURE CITED