Carl V. Hartman and the Costa Rica Collections

Bibliography

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Publications Dealing Exclusively With Hartman

  • Anonymous. 1900. The Hartman Anthropological and Archeological Collection. Science, n.s., 12(312):967-968.
    • Authorship not attributed but probably written by Hartman or possibly Hjalmar Stolpe.
    • Reviews Hartman's archaeological and ethnographic research in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico during the Swedish expedition (1896-1899), listing sites excavated and ethnic groups visited.
    • Written within the context of an exhibit in Stockholm, in which the Central American artifacts were displayed; Hartman mounted this exhibit a year after he returned to Sweden.
  • Brunius, Staffan. 1984. Carl V. Hartman: svensk arkeolog-etnograf i Centralamerika. Occasional Papers, Institute of Latin American Studies, Stockholm, 16 pp.
    • Reviews Hartman's anthropological career and his place in Central American research.
    • Uses unpublished information from archives in Sweden.
    • devotes separate sections to Hartman as an archaeologist and an ethnographer
    • Brunius currently is Senior Curator (Collections of The Americas), Folkens Museum Etnografiska [The National Museum of Ethnography], Stockholm
  • Franzén, Olle. 1969. Hartman, Carl Vilhelm. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon 18(87):299-301.
    • Discusses Hartman's life, education, experience, and employment, and his careers as a botanist, museologist, and anthropologist.
    • incorporates an extensive list of his scholarly and popular publications in all fields
  • Lindblom, Gerhard. 1941. Obituary: Carl Vilhelm Hartman 1862-1941. Ethnos 5:187.
    • Summarizes Hartman's career by highlighting his service as a museum curator and administrator and his anthropological research during field expeditions to Mexico and Central America.
    • Lindblom succeeded Hartman as director of the Ethnographical Section of the Swedish Museum of Natural History
  • Lutz, Christopher H. 2001. Un científico sueco en Centroamérica: Carl Vilhelm Hartman (1862-1941). Mesoamérica 41:137-145.
    • Summarizes Hartman’s research in Central America during the Swedish expedition (1896-1899).
    • introduces the recent Spanish translation of a 1901 Hartman publication in Swedish, dealing with indigenous peoples in El Salvador
    • Includes a photograph of Hartman in Costa Rica in 1903, obtained from the Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History (glass-plate G960).
  • Ohlsson de Formoso, Anita. 1991. Carl V. Hartman: Arqueología costarricense (textos publicados y diarios inéditos). San José, Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 133 pp.
    • Translates sections of Hartman's 1901 (Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica [Stockholm]) and 1907 (Archaeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica [Pittsburgh]) publications and an unpublished field diary.
    • intersperses other translations from additional unpublished documents
    • Covers the Atlantic region, Valley of Cartago, North Pacific region, and Nicoya peninsula.
    • Includes many of Hartman's Costa Rican photographs reposing in the archives of the Ethnographic Museum (Stockholm) and Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
    • Olhsson de Formoso was born in Sweden but has lived for many years in Costa Rica, where she has taught geography at the Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Richardson, James B., III. 1984. Preface. Pp. iv-v, in Inter-Regional Ties in Costa Rican Prehistory (Esther Skirboll and Winifred Creamer, editors). BAR [British Archaeological Reports] International Series 226.
    • Introduces the symposium volume honoring Hartman.
    • Brief comments on Hartman as a Curator at the Carnegie Museum and about researchers who recently made use of the collections he assembled.
  • Rowe, John Howland. 1959. Carl Hartman and His Place in the History of Costa Rican Archaeology. Actas del XXXIII Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 2:268-279. San José, Costa Rica.
    • The first article to discuss the significance of Hartman's research in the development of Costa Rican archaeology.
    • Includes an overview of projects in Costa Rica during the two expeditions (1896-1897 and 1903).
    • contends that Hartman's systematic fieldwork was well advanced for his time and reflected the excavation methods he learned from Hjalmar Stolpe in Sweden
    • argues that Hartman's careful recording of data can facilitate the investigation of new questions by later researchers
    • Also discusses the relevance and limitations of Hartman's excavation methods.
  • Skirboll, Esther. 1984. Carl Hartman and the Beginning of Scientific Archaeology in Costa Rica. Pp. 1-13, in Inter-Regional Ties in Costa Rican Prehistory (Esther Skirboll and Winifred Creamer, editors). BAR [British Archaeological Reports] International Series 226.
    • Discusses Hartman's background and achievements.
    • Reviews the sites excavated during his two expeditions to Costa Rica.
    • Lists later researchers who made use of Hartman's collection and publications, including her own research on Curridabat and Concepción sites.
    • Augments the discussion with information derived from museum archives.
  • Skirboll, Esther and Winifred Creamer (editors). 1984. Inter-Regional Ties in Costa Rican Prehistory. BAR [British Archaeological Reports] International Series 226. Oxford, British Archaeological Reports, 276 pp.
    • Edited volume of fourteen articles resulting from a symposium honoring C. V. Hartman that was held at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, April 27, 1983.
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora. 2002. "Expeditions, expositions, associations, and museums in the anthropological career for C. V. Hartman." Annals of Carnegie Museum 71:261-299. Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
    • Synthesizes four years of research by Watters and Fonseca Zamora regarding Hartman's transition from botanist to anthropologist and the four principal entities that guided that transformation.
    • Focuses on the twenty-year time span (1890-1910) during which he was most actively involved with the emerging discipline of anthropology, especially museum anthropology.
    • Discusses his involvement with the Lumholtz expedition to the Sierra Madre region of Mexico (1890-1892), the Swedish expedition to Central America (1896-1899), and the Carnegie Museum expedition to Costa Rica (1903).
    • Discusses his participation in the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) and Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (1904), and the roles of Costa Rica's National Expositions and the Exposición Histórico-Americana in Madrid, Spain (1892) in expanding awareness of Costa Rica's archaeological heritage.
    • Explores the importance of the International Congress of Americanists, Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, and American Anthropological Association in Hartman's transition to anthropology.
    • Identifies the three principal museums with which he was engaged, the Royal Museum of Natural History of Sweden (later the Ethnographical Museum), Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, and Carnegie Museum (1903-1908) .
    • Concludes with a discussion of the individuals and events contributing to his career change and an assessment of Hartman's career within the context of the emergence of anthropology as a discipline in Europe and the Americas.
    • Incorporates images of his field excavations and collections, derived from Hartman's glass-plate negative collection at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and a comprehensive set of pertinent references.
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora. 2002. "C. V. Hartman and Museum Anthropology a Century Ago." Bulletin of the History of Archaeology 12(2):21-24.
    • Summarizes information about Hartman's career change to anthropology.
    • Emphasizes his exclusive involvement with museum anthropology throughout his career.
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora  2003  "Archaeological Landscapes in Costa Rica's Cartago Valley."  Antiquity vol. 77, no. 297 http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/watters/watters.html
    • Compares two of Hartman's 1903 photographs to a recent (June 2000) photograph of the Cartago Valley.
    • Documents the extent of urbanization in the Cartago Valley in one century.
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora. 2004. Becoming a Museum Anthropologist: C. V. Hartman's International Networking a Century Ago. Museum Anthropology 26(2):63-80.
    • Discusses twelve individuals from Europe (Carl Lumholtz, Hjalmar Stolpe, Åke Sjögren, Eduard Seler), Costa Rica (Anastasio Alfaro, Henri Pittier de Fabrega, Juan Fernández Ferraz), and North America (Frederic Ward Putnam, Franz Boas, W. J. Holland, W J McGee, George Grant MacCurdy) who were key players in fostering Hartman's anthropological career.
    • Identifies the major activities and events through which these individuals networked with Hartman and promoted his career.
    • Reviews Hartman's work as a research anthropologist and as a museum anthropologist, including his varied responsibilities as a curator at Carnegie Museum.
    • Concludes that Hartman's decision to center his anthropological career in the museum setting was logical in view of his "old school" training.

Selected Publications in which Hartman's Costa Rican Research is Discussed in Broader Perspectives

  • Alvarsson, Jan-Åke and Staffan Brunius. 1992. Americanistas suecos - una introducción. Kulturrådet 7:2-8.
    • Spanish version of longer English article published in 1994 by the same authors [see next entry].
    • Briefly summarizes careers of Hjalmar Stolpe (p. 3) and Hartman (pp. 3-4) .
  • Alvarsson, Jan-Åke and Staffan Brunius. 1994. A Brief Introduction to the History of Swedish Americanists. Acta Americana 2(2):41-64.
    • Brief summary (pp. 44-45) of C. V. Hartman's career in relationship to contemporary Swedish Americanists working during the "First Nordenshiöld Era".
    • Includes information about Hjalmar Stolpe (p. 43), Hartman's mentor.
  • Baudez, Claude F. 1967. Recherches Archéologiques dans La Vallée du Tempisque, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Travaux & Memoires de L'Institut des Hautes Études de L'Amérique Latine 18. Université de Paris.
    • Baudez acknowledges Hartman's research contributions (pp. xviii-xix) and uses data from three of his publications (1901, 1907a, 1907b) for comparative purposes in establishing the ceramic typology of the Tempisque Valley.
  • Baudez, Claude F. 1971. Central America. London, Barrie & Jenkins.
    • Regards Hartman as a pioneer and the founder of Central American Archaeology (pp. 26-28), whose systematic research was not followed up on in Costa Rica for fifty years.
  • Fonseca Zamora, Oscar. 1984. Reflexiones sobre la investigación arqueologica en Costa Rica: una perspectiva histórica. Pp. 15-27, in Inter-Regional Ties in Costa Rican Prehistory (Esther Skirboll and Winifred Creamer, editors). BAR [British Archaeological Reports] International Series 226.
    • Contends (p. 18) that Hartman and Costa Rican Anastasio Alfaro were the principal figures of the era of the pioneer professional archaeologists (1890-1925).
  • Fonseca Zamora, Oscar. 1996. Historia antigua de Costa Rica: Surgimiento y caracterización de la primera civilización costarricense. San José, Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica.
    • Reiterates the pioneering significance of Hartman and Alfaro (p. 15).
    • Illustrates a number of Costa Rican artifacts in the Hartman collection at Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
  • Jones, Julie. 1998. Introduction. Pp. 11-21, in Jade in Ancient Costa Rica (Julie Jones, editor). New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 127 pp.
    • Summarizes (pp. 15-18) Hartman's research with special attention to his 1903 Las Huacas excavations and the significance of the jade artifacts recovered.
    • Interspersed throughout this edited volume are color plates of fifteen artifacts loaned by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History for this exhibition.
    • Included in the volume's checklist of exhibited artifacts (pp. 97-111) are materials analysis (X-ray diffraction) and site and collection data for the fifteen artifacts (numbers 1-12, 16, 37, 46).
  • Joyce, Thomas A. 1916. Central American and West Indian Archaeology. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. [Reprinted by Hacker Art Books, New York, in 1973]
    • Joyce incorporated information, including some images, from Hartman's 1901 and 1907 monographs into the Costa Rica sections of his study (chapters 1-4).
    • In an appendix, Joyce (pp. 258-260) discloses his reliance on Hartman's work in preparing the Costa Rican sections of his volume.
  • Lindberg, Christer. 1996. En instruktion för arkeologiska utgrävningar - om pionjärerna Hjalmar Stolpe och Carl V. Hartman. Fornvännen 19:81-90.
    • Lindberg discovered a manual that Hjalmar Stolpe, Sweden's foremost field archaeologist, provided to C. V. Hartman in preparation for his research in Costa Rica.
    • Discusses Stolpe's excavation techniques applied by Hartman in Costa Rica and comments on their scientific work and its significance for Americanist archaeology.
    • The content of Stolpe's entire manual is appended to Lindberg's article.
  • Stone, Doris. 1977. Pre-Columbian Man in Costa Rica. Cambridge, Peabody Museum Press.
    • Characterizes Hartman as an archaeological "trailbreaker" in both the Nicoya and Atlantic regions (pp. 26, 137) .
  • Willey, Gordon R. and Jeremy A. Sabloff. 1993. A History of American Archaeology. Third edition. New York, W. H. Freeman and Company.
    • Regard (p. 85) Hartman, whose archaeological researches they deem worthy of special note, as a careful fieldworker producing well-illustrated publications that were outstanding for their time.
    • Favorably compare Hartman to Max Uhle, the premier archaeologist working contemporaneously in South America.

Hartman's Publications About Costa Rican Archaeology, and Reviews of Hartman's Publications

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Publications on Costa Rican Archaeology

  • 1901. Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica. The Royal Ethnographical Museum, Stockholm, 195 pp., 486 figures, 87 plates.
    • Hartman's first monograph about the archaeology of Costa Rica, derived from his research in 1896-1897 for the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.
    • Discusses research on the East Coast (especially the site of Mercedes) and the Highland Plains of Cartago province (sites of Santiago, Chircot, Los Limones, and Orosi) and some collections obtained by purchase.
    • In-text figures and appended plates of individual graves, cemetery plans, and artifacts (stone and pottery, including color images).
    • Awarded the prestigious "Duke of Loubat" by the Swedish Royal Academy of Belles Lettres, History and Antiquities.
  • 1902. Arkeologiska undersökningar på Costa Ricas ostkost. Ymer 21:19-55 + 10 plates.
    • A synopsis in Swedish of the 1901 monograph.
  • 1907. Archaeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 3:1-188 + 72 figures and 47 plates.
    • Hartman's second monograph about the archaeology of Costa Rica, derived from his research in 1903 during the expedition funded by Carnegie Museum.
    • Discusses excavations at the Las Guacas (= Las Huacas) site on Nicoya peninsula, the purchased Velasco collection from Nicoya, exploration of the region by Spaniards, and previous archaeological research in the peninsula.
    • In-text figures and appended plates include objects in the collections of the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica which Hartman had been permitted to photograph in 1903.
  • 1907. The Alligator as a plastic decorative motive in certain Costa Rican pottery. American Anthropologist, new series, 9:307-314 + 5 plates.
    • Discusses the "alligator-like" decorative elements on pottery vessels of "Curridabat ware," excavated in 1903 from the Curridabat and Concepción sites in the Central Highlands.
    • Includes comparisons with examples of "alligator ware" from Chiriqui, studied by William Henry Holmes and George Grant MacCurdy.
  • 1910. Some features of Costa Rican Archaeology (An Abstract). Verhandlungen des XVI Internationalen Amerikanisten-Kongresses, Wien, 9 bis 14 September 1908:301-306 + 6 figures. 2.3.2
    • Discusses different forms of graves in burial grounds identified during research in Costa Rica and illustrates their construction in accompanying photographs.
    • Contains six photographs corresponding to images observed on glass plate negatives in the archives at Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
    • Includes comments about Costa Rican archaeological collections reposing in museums in Bremen, Germany, and Vienna, Austria.

Reviews of Hartman's Publications About Costa Rican Archaeology

Hartman's two monographs received favorable endorsements from his professional colleagues. The reviews by Seler, MacCurdy, and Holmes feature images of selected artifacts from the original monographs.

  • Peet, Stephen D. 1904. [Review of] Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica. American Antiquarian 26:249-256.
  • Seler, Eduard 1904. [Review of] Archäologische Untersuchungen in Costarica. Globus LXXXV(15):233-239.
  • MacCurdy, George Grant 1905 [Review of] Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland XXXV:437-442.
  • MacCurdy, George Grant 1906 [Review of] Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica. Science, 24(603):78-81. [This review is almost identical to MacCurdy's 1905 review].
  • Gordon, G. B. 1906 [Review of] Archaeological Researches in Costa Rica. American Anthropologist 8:580-581.
  • Holmes, W. H. 1908 [Review of] Archaeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. American Anthropologist 10:128-133.
  • Beuchat, H. 1909. [Review of] Archaeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica (Recherches archéologiques au Costa-Rica, côte du Pacifique). Journal de la Société de Américanistes de Paris 6:279-280.
  • Boule, Marcellin. 1910 [Review of] Archeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica (Recherches archéologiques sur la còte pacifique de Costa Rica). L'Anthropologie 21:706-707. [Boule used only his initials, M. B., as the reviewer].
  • Chamberlain, Alexander F. 1912. [Review of] Populära etnologiska skrifter utgifna af Riksmuseets etnografiska afdelning under redaktion af Professor C. V. Hartman. Current Anthropological Literature 1:124-127.

Use of Hartman's Collections for Scholarly Research

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Publications from Collection Research

  • Fonseca Z., Oscar and James B. Richardson III. 1978. South American and Mayan Cultural Contacts at the Las Huacas site, Costa Rica. Annals of Carnegie Museum 47:281-298. Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Fonseca Z., Oscar and Richard Scaglion. 1978. Stylistic analysis of stone pendants from the Las Huacas burial ground, northwestern Costa Rica. Annals of Carnegie Museum 47:281-298. Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Hartman, C. V. 1907a. Archaeological Researches on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 3:1-188.
  • Hartman, C. V. 1907b. The Alligator as a plastic decorative motive in certain Costa Rican pottery. American Anthropologist 9:307-314.
  • Hartman, C. V. 1910. Some features of Costa Rican Archaeology (An Abstract). Verhandlungen des XVI Internationalen Amerikanisten-Kongresses, Wein, 9 bis 14 September 1908: 301-306.
  • Heckenberger, Michael J. and David R. Watters. 1993. Ceramic remains from Carl V. Hartman¹s 1903 excavations at Las Huacas cemetery, Costa Rica. Annals of Carnegie Museum 62:97-129. Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Lothrop, Samuel Kirkland. 1926. Pottery of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation 8:1-529 (2 volumes).
  • Mayer-Oakes, William J. 1952. A Central American Clue to Early Man. Carnegie Magazine 26(6):189-191. [Popularly oriented report on the discovery of the "Folsomoid fluted spear point" in the Hartman collection; see Swauger and Mayer-Oakes, 1952, for the corresponding scientific article.]
  • Skirboll, Esther. 1984. Pottery from Curridabat and Concepción in the Central Highlands of Costa Rica. Annals of Carnegie Museum 53:47-70. Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Swauger, James L. and William J. Mayer-Oakes. 1952. A fluted point from Costa Rica. American Antiquity 17:264-265. [see also Mayer-Oakes 1952]
  • Watters, David R. 2002. W. J. Holland’s Speech at the International Congress of Americanists, 13th Session, in 1902. Annals of Carnegie Museum 71:131-141. [discusses how Hartman and Holland met] Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora. 2001. An excavation in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica. Annals of Carnegie Museum 70:237-238. [reproduces the only known image possibly depicting Hartman’s fieldwork at the Las Huacas site] Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Watters, David R. and Oscar Fonseca Zamora. 2001. C. V. Hartman’s letter of February 20, 1903 to W. J. Holland. Annals of Carnegie Museum 70:263-268. [reproduces the letter detailing Hartman’s experience in museum work, as Holland requested before he hired Hartman] Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Watters, David R. and  Oscar Fonseca Zamora  2003   C. V. Hartman's Letter of May 27, 1907 to C. C. Mellor.  Annals of Carnegie Museum 72:109-136.  [a lengthy letter in which Hartman details his accomplishments at Carnegie Museum to bolster his request for a salary increase] Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office
  • Watters, David R. and  Oscar Fonseca Zamora  2003   W. J. Holland's Instructions to C. V. Hartman for the 1903 Costa Rica Expedition.  Annals of Carnegie Museum 72:263-271.  [a two-page letter laying out Holland's expectations for the expedition, as well as his correspondence with individuals who could facilitate the project] Order this paper from the Scientific Publications office

Unpublished Theses, Dissertations, and Reports from Collection Research

  • Cowin, Verna L. 1974. Preliminary investigation into stylistic seriation of Costa Rican pottery recovered 1896 to 1903 by Carl V. Hartman. Typescript, Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 27 pp., appendix.
  • Fonseca Z., Oscar M. 1975. Preliminary report on Hartman collection. Typescript, Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 36 pp., 3 figures, 36 tables.
  • Metzgar, Don. n.d. The Ferraz portion of the Hartman Costa Rican collection. Typescript, Section of Anthropology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 5 pp. + 3 figures. [probably done in the 1970s]
  • Poole, Andréa Lynell. 1988. Two Late-Period polychrome vessels at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History: Evidence of Post-Classic Mexican influence in Costa Rica. Unpublished Master of Arts thesis, Department of Fine Arts, University of Pittsburgh, 50 pp., 23 figures, 1 table, 5 maps.
  • Skirboll, Esther. 1981. The Transitional Period in the Central Highlands of Costa Rica: An Analysis of Pottery from the Curridabat and Concepción sites. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, 238 pp., 96 figures, 7 tables.

Use of Hartman's Collections By Other Museums

  • Benson, Elizabeth P. 1997. Birds and Beasts of Ancient Latin America. Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 162 pp.
    • Book produced in conjunction with a traveling exhibit organized by four institutions.
    • Intersperses comments about Hartman and photographs of Carnegie Museum of Natural History artifacts from Costa Rica.
  • Jones, Julie (editor). 1998. Jade in Ancient Costa Rica. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 127 pp.
    • Catalog produced to accompany the temporary exhibit of the same name.
    • Contains color plates of fifteen artifacts loaned by Carnegie Museum of Natural History and a checklist with data about these specimens.

Carl V. Hartman's Other Anthropological Publications

  • 1895. Indianer i nordvestra Mexiko. Ymer, 15:272-290.
  • 1897. The Indians of North-Western Mexico. Compte-rendu de la Congrès Internationale des Américanistes, X Session, Stockholm, 1894: 115-135.
  • 1901. Etnografiska undersökningar öfver aztekerna i Salvador. Ymer, 21:277- 324.
  • 1906. Die baumkalebasse im tropischen Amerika, ein beitrag zur ethnobotanik. Pp. 196-207, in Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological papers written in honor of Franz Boas (B. Laufer, ed.). G. E. Stechert, New York, New York.
  • 1907. Two engraved shell disks from Tennessee. American Anthropologist, 9:447-448.
  • 1907. Mythology of the Aztecs of Salvador. Journal of American Folk-Lore, 20:143-147.
  • 1907. The story of the calabash-tree in the “Popul Vuh.” Journal of American Folk-Lore, 20:148-150.
  • 1909. Indianer. Nordisk Familjebok 2.
  • 1910. The photographone. Verhandlungen des XVI Internationalen Amerikanisten Kongresses, Wien, 1908: 563-568.
  • 1910. Le calebassier de l’amérique tropicale (Cresentia): Étude d’ethnobotanique. Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, 7:131-143. [Translation of the 1906 article.]
  • 1911-?? Populära etnologiska skrifter. [Popular Ethnological Writings]. Hartman served as editor for these popularly oriented writings. The series was written by respected anthropologists and published by the Ethnological Section of the Royal Museum, Stockholm. [See review by A. F. Chamberlain, 1912, for details of the first nine writings produced.]
  • 2001. Reconocimiento etnográfico de los Aztecas de El Salvador. Mesoámerica, 41:146-191. [Translation by Claudia García of the 1901 Swedish article.]

 

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