North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1960–1968

1960 1960–1961: Lakota Congressman Winter

Ben Reifel became the first Lakota to be elected to Congress.

1961 1961–1962: Winter of Strength

A new era in federal Indian policy—self-determination—was ushered in.

1962 1962–1963: Housing Winter

The Rosebud Housing Authority was established to oversee the building of prefabricated HUD housing.

1963 1963–1964: Another-Attack-on-Self Governance Winter

Again the state of South Dakota attempted to assume jurisdiction over the reservation without tribal consent.

1964 1964–1965: Many-Visions Winter

Many Lakota and other people were proud when Billy Mills, an Oglala, won his gold medal in the Olympics.

1965 1965–1966: They-Pierce-Again Winter

For the first time since 1880, the people of the Rosebud were allowed to hold a Sun Dance that included piercing as a form of sacrifice. This was at Spring Creek.

1966 1966–1967: Any-Birth-Place Winter

An amendment to the tribal constitution allowed all eligible tribal members born off the reservation to be enrolled. This change was in response to the needs of the growing urban Indian population.

1967 1967–1968: Third-Long-Braid-Fight Winter

The Sicangu of the Rosebud along with many other people joined the armed services and went to Vietnam.

1968 1968–1969: Legal-Issues Winter

Congressional legislation increased the rights of Indian people. One law, the Indian Civil Rights Act, gave each tribal member the basic rights that most Americans have.

   
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