North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1986–1992

1986 1986–1987: Shameful Winter

Willie Bettelyoun was the first person in South Dakota to be diagnosed as HIV positive. He was harassed and discriminated against in his workplace, the tribal offices.

1987 1987–1988: Religious Issues Winter

Some say that this was the first year that women were allowed to pierce while sun dancing. Religious practices such as peyote usage by the Native American Church and practices of Native prison inmates were debated nationally.

1988 1988–1989: More-Art Winter

The Brulé Sioux Arts and Crafts Cooperative was established. Many gifted artists, including Nellie Star Boy Menard, Lloyd and Annabel One Star, and Edna Layton belonged to this co-op. Dorothy Crane was its first chairperson.

1989 1989–1990: University Winter

With the addition of a Masters in Education program, Sinté Gleska College became a university. Its president had recently been named Indian Educator of the Year.

1990 1990–1991: Journey Winter

Many Indian people, both men and women, commemorated the 100th anniversary of the Massacre at Wounded Knee. They retraced the ride from Standing Rock to Wounded Knee during hazardous weather conditions.

1991 1991–1992: Education Winter

Richard Bourdeaux was the first tribal member to be elected superintendent of the Todd County Schools. Lionel Bourdeaux was named to the White House Task Force on Indian Education. The first reservation-wide workshop on AIDS was held.

1992 1992–1993: Communication Winter

The 500-year anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America was not a time of celebration on the Rosebud. Governor George Mickelson declared 1992 the Year of Reconciliation in an effort to open real dialogue between Indians and non-Indians in the state of South Dakota.

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