North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1908–1918

1908 1908–1909: Flowing-Waters Winter

The Supreme Court ruled that states cannot modify or repeal Indian treaty rights in cases concerning water rights.

1909 1909–1910: Swift Bear's Winter

Chief Swift Bear's passing added to the accumulated loss of respected leaders chosen by the people because of their valor and adherence to traditional values.

1910 1910–1911: Quarter-Left Winter

Congress opened up the Rosebud Reservation land to outsiders. This left only Todd County as exclusively Indian land.

1911 1911–1912: They-Want-It-All Winter

Congress attempted to open Todd County to outside sale. Mixed-bloods, full-bloods, and the U.S. Agent joined together in opposition.

1912 1912–1913: Turning Bear's Winter

Turning Bear, a former leader of the Ghost Dance, was killed when he was run over by a train.

1913 1913–1914: Hollow Horn Bear's Winter

During the inaugural parade for President Woodrow Wilson, Chief Hollow Horn Bear, Rosebud's representative, contracted pneumonia and went on his journey.

1914 1914–1915: Two Strike's Winter

The loss of traditional leadership continued with the death of Two Strike.

1915 1915–1916: High Bear's Winter

Another leader, High Bear, was lost.

1916 1916–1917: Little Tracks Winter

Over 25,000 head of Rosebud cattle were sold to meet World War I needs in Europe. Lakota ranchers were unable to purchase new stock when prices rose sharply, so their cattle business was crippled.

1917 1917–1918: He-Feeds-the-Unsica Winter

Agent Corey initiated a new program for the unsica ("pitiful") that assisted the old, the sick, and the destitute.

1918 1918–1919: Returns-from-War Winter

Many celebrations and ceremonies marked the return of Lakota World War I soldiers. The first Indian reported to have been killed was Chauncey Eagle Horn, a Sicangu from Oak Creek.

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