North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1919–1927

1919 1919–1920: Burnt-Legs Winter

Two homesick girls ran away from St. Francis Boarding School. One froze to death. The other girl's legs were so frostbitten that they required amputation.

1920 1920–1921: Tribal Council Winter

The Rosebud Tribal Council emerged from the Rosebud Business Council to become the voice of the people.

1921 1921–1922: Far-Reaching Winter

The Tribal Council made a far-reaching decision to put $30,000 into a bank to be used as trust money in a revolving credit fund.

1922 1922–1923: Low-Point Winter

A drought that turned the Plains into a dust bowl began this winter.

1923 1923–1924: Winter They Attack the Spirits

Jesse Eagle Elk was knocked down and arrested by Indian police while performing a heyoka dance. Ironically, the American Indian Defense Association was established this year. Its purpose was to preserve tribal culture.

1924 1924–1925: Winter of Basic Freedoms

Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, finally granting citizenship to the country's original residents.

1925 1925–1926: Crossed-the-Water Winter

The Wheeler Bridge across the Missouri River opened, allowing Rosebud people easy access to eastern South Dakota.

1926 1926–1927: Good-Agent Winter

Agent James McGregor left this year. He was a popular agent who supported the Lakota claim to the Black Hills.

1927 1927–1928: Dry-Bones Winter

Continued drought devastated local wildlife and plant life. As the crops withered, so did the hopes for turning the Lakota into farmers.

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