North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1928–1938

1928 1928–1929: Red-Face Winter

Congress was embarrassed by the unflattering results of the Meriam Report on U.S. Indian policy.

1929 1929–1930: Winter the Oglalas Turned into Utes

During a meeting at Pine Ridge, Charlie Black Horse spoke of the local hunger and poverty: "We are starving and most all the people here look black; they get that way from eating too much horse meat." Black Man is an old Lakota term for the Utes.

1930 1930–1931: Prairie Dog Winter

Difficult times continued for the people of the Rosebud, forcing them to consider eating prairie dog. It stinks up the house so much when you cook it, or so my grandmother used to tell me.

1931 1931–1932: Reverend Deloria's Winter

Revered Phillip Deloria, a well-respected member of the clergy, went on his journey this year.

1932 1932–1933: Winter of the Heyoka's Words

Black Elk Speaks, the most famous book on Lakota life, was published this year. It was written about the life of an Oglala holy man.

1933 1933–1934: Iron-Man-Visits-Us Winter

John Collier, the new commissioner of Indian Affairs, spoke to the people in the Grass Mountain District Hall about the upcoming fundamental changes in Indian policy as part of the New Deal.

1934 1934–1935: Winter of Angry Hearts

The new Indian Reorganization Act made sweeping changes in federal Indian policy. Now tribes could select their leaders. At Rosebud, some favored inherited leadership, while others favored democratic selection.


1935 1935–1936: Winter They Marked the Little Papers

The tribe ratified its new constitution and elected its first tribal chairman, Antoine Roubideaux, a mixed-blood. Once again our chiefs were chosen by tribal members.

1936 1936–1937: Winter They Taught the Elders

Adult education started at Rosebud. This project was motivated by a desire to inform traditional Lakota-speaking people about New Deal programs and training.

1937 1937–1938: Incorporation Winter

The Rosebud Tribe was granted a corporate charter that allowed the tribe to enter into business agreements without the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1938 1938–1939: Winter of the Token Land Return

The government returned 4,600 acres of land to the tribe. But it was a small amount in comparison with the original Rosebud Agency land base.

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