North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Winter Count: 1950–1959

1950 1950–1951: Winter of Our First Lawyer

Ramon Roubideaux became the first Lakota to earn a law degree.

1951 1951–1952: Winter of the Second Fight with the Long Braids

As in World War II, large numbers of Indians joined the armed forces, this time bound for Korea.

1952 1952–1953: Bad-Hair Winter

This winter's blizzard was a hair-raising event that surpassed the blizzard of 1949.

1953 1953–1954: Winter with the Dark Skies

Federal actions adversely affected the people of the Rosebud. The prohibition against the sale of alcohol to Indians was repealed. Congress transferred criminal and civil law from the tribes to the states.

1954 1954–1955: Big-City Winter

The U.S. Federal Relocation Program moved Indian people to urban centers where employment opportunities existed. Many people from the Rosebud left, yet many returned to their families.

1955 1955–1956: Health Care Winter

The Indian Health Service was created.

1956 1956–1957: White Winter

Mrs. Cornelius White died as she and her husband tried to walk to the town of Mission during a blizzard.

1957 1957–1958: Tribal-Control Winter

The state of South Dakota made an attempt to assume legal jurisdiction over the Rosebud, an action that required tribal consent.

1958 1958–1959: Winter We Just Said "No"

A reservation-wide referendum did not approve state legal jurisdiction over the Rosebud.

1959 1959–1960: Dry Winter

The first Alcoholics Anonymous meeting was held on the Rosebud.

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