North-South-East-West: American Indians and the Natural World

Spawn: A Perilous Journey

2. "Parr" for the Course

Within months, the juvenile salmon have graduated to the next stage of development, called the parr or fingerling stage. Fingerlings develop dark-colored vertical bars, called parr marks, that blend in with the gravel and help camouflage them from predators.

The parr remain in the lake or river for one or more years or migrate immediately to salt water, depending on the species. Pink and chum salmon migrate to the ocean shortly after emerging from the gravel; sockeye rear in lakes, chinook in streams, and coho in streams and backwater areas.

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