Invertebrate Zoology

General Loan Policy

Scientific Use of Specimens 

Invertebrate Zoology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, wishes to make its collections available to all interested persons for scientific study. Any aspect of the following general policy may be altered to accommodate special circumstances by prior written arrangement with the curator in charge.

1. Specimens are loaned only for scientific studies intended for publication or for authoritative determination.
2. Specimens may be borrowed by any knowledgeable biologist (with or without institutional affiliation) as approved by the curator in charge. Student loans are made to the supervising advisor.
3. Loans are made for a duration of two years, may not be transferred or forwarded to third parties, may be renewed on request, and may be recalled at any time. Type specimens are loaned for three months.
4. Borrowers must promptly acknowledge reception of mailed loans, report the status of loans on request, note changes of address, and send reprints of publications resulting from research on Carnegie specimens.
5. Borrowers are responsible for the integrity of borrowed specimens.
a. Store in an area that is pest-free, cool, dry, and dark.
b. No label may be permanently removed from a specimen.
c. Packaging for shipment must be appropriate and secure.
d. Reasonable repair of damaged specimens is expected, with attachment of a label describing repair and kind of adhesive used.
e. Genitalic dissection is routinely permitted on non-type materials; preparations should specify mounting medium or preservative, bear the preparator's name, and be clearly and uniquely associated with the remainder of the specimen.
f. Permission to dissect primary type specimens or to make other special preparations must be obtained from the curator in charge.
6. Individual identification labels should always be placed on specimens that will be mentioned in systematic publications. The preferred institutional abbreviation is CMNH.
7. Borrowers will pay for shipment when returning specimens. Type specimens should be returned by registered mail and be packed in a compartment or container separate from other specimens.
8. Specimens intended as types for new taxa, or designated as types for previously named taxa, should be clearly labelled. Names or taxonomic changes written on labels and not yet published when specimens are returned should be clearly described in correspondence.
9. Photographs or facsimiles of Carnegie specimens may be used only for scientific publication. Other uses require special permission.
10. Specimens may be permanently retained only by systematic specialists seeking to increase the diversity of their comparative collections, and only in taxa on which they will continue to publish. When possible, exchange of CMNH specimens for species not in the CMNH collection is expected. Other arrangements must be made by special request.

The following specimens MAY NOT BE RETAINED:
a. Type specimens of any kind, except secondary types of taxa described by the borrower.
b. Specimens not authoritatively identified to species level.
c. Specimens already accurately determined by another specialist.
d. Best male and female of any species, or two best of each sex for Lepidoptera and Odonata.
e. More than one third of the identified CMNH specimens for that species, and IN ANY CASE more than five specimens of any given species.

If possible, retained specimens should bear label data similar to those returned to CMNH. A retained specimen subsequently designated as a primary type must be returned to CMNH.

IMPORTANT: Specimens with labels bearing Carnegie Museum numbers (accession, catalogue, or unique identification) may only be retained if other retention criteria are met and a written list of such numbers is returned to the curator in charge at CMNH.

Maximum Permanent Retention from Series Determined by Borrower  

 

 
Total CMNH Specimens of Species being Retained
 
1-2
3-4
5
6-8
9-11
12-14
More than 14
Lepidoptera
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Odonata
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Other Orders
0
1
1
2
3
4
5

 

Specimens Borrowed (1913–2004)  

Based on 2,708 loans involving 963,003 specimens

loans  

Entomological Loans (1914–2003)  

Based on 2,665 loans involving 928,862 specimens over 90 years

loan